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History of Antimatter

Antimatter is a mirror image of matter. In 1898, Arthur Schuster, British physicist, coined the name "antimatter." He believed there were entire stellar systems of antimatter that were indistinguishable from our solar system. He also thought matter and antimatter would annihilate each other to produce huge quantities of energy and anticipated the concepts of special relativity and quantum physics. In 1905, Albert Einstein unveiled his special relativity theory explaining the relationship between space & time, and energy & mass in his famous equation, E=mc2

Hermann Minkowski realized space & time were coupled together by a four-dimensional. In 1919, Theodor Kaluza, unified Maxwell's Electromagnetism, Einstein's Theory of General Relativity and Gravity by adding a 5th dimension.  Max Planck proposed that light was composed of little packets called "quantum” to explain how light was not just a wave or just a particle, but a combination of both. Using this theory, Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg apply the concept to the atoms and invented quantum theory of physics.

When Paul Dirac combined the equations for quantum theory and special relativity, the solution contained an electron with positive energy and a positive electron (positron) with negative energy. In 1930, Carl Anderson discovered the positron when he

Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle developed the Steady State Universe Model assuming the universe was composed of matter and antimatter. In 1966, Hannes Alfven developed the Plasma Model of the Universe by incorporating the scientific observations into the Steady State Model.  A plasma is the 4th state of matter and is sometimes called dark matter and energy by astrophysics.  Alfven received a Nobel Prize. Anthony Peratt has developed computer models that simulated the known galaxies in the universe. 

When antimatter enters our solar system, it is called comets. The quantity of antimatter in our solar system is a million times less than scientists had estimated. In 2002, Norm Hansen announced the discovery that comets are composed of antimatter to the joint meeting of American Physical Society & American Astronomical Society

Hundreds of antimatter sungrazers comets have collided with the Sun and produced large explosions. National Geographic magazine, July 2004 issue, discusses solar bursts that are equivalent to billions of megatons of TNT. When Earth passes through these enormous solar storms, communication satellites have been damaged and electrical power on Earth disrupted. Comets are not only colliding with the Sun, but also colliding with stars throughout the Universe and are the source of gamma-ray bursts that scientists have been studying for 40 years.

Today, we know antimatter or mirror matter is mirror image of matter and can be a solid, liquid, gas or plasma. Antimatter like matter is composed of elements. CERN scientists made anti-hydrogen in 1995. Hansen identified 108 additional antimatter elements and defined each their antimatter element’s nuclear, physical, and chemical properties to such an extent that scientists and engineers know almost as much about antimatter as matter. Norm Hansen also incorporated the antimatter elements into a Periodic Table of Matter-Antimatter Elements.

 

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